by Philip E. Hughes

 

“Deeds are the fruits of love; and love is the fruit of faith.” So wrote William Tyndale;1 and this saying of his sums up the attitude of the Reformers to the subject of sanctification. The believer’s love is the natural response to the prior love of God and it necessarily expresses itself in holy living. As we saw in the last chapter, so far from having no place for good works, the Reformers insisted on good works as an essential mark of the life that is truly Christian. What they consistently denied was that a man’s works could in any way contribute towards the achievement of his justification before God: only the unique redeeming work of Christ could avail for that. But what they no less consistently affirmed was that, as St. James stresses, good works are the outward proof of a genuine faith in Christ, and that where such works are absent the profession of faith must be dismissed as spurious. Holiness of life must be natural to him who has a new nature through the inward operation of the Holy Spirit: a good tree must be expected to bring forth good fruit. Sanctification, therefore, was regarded by the Reformers as essential and, inasmuch as regeneration is altogether the work of God, inevitable for the man who has been freely justified by faith in Christ Jesus. They also saw it as obligatory because of the commandments of God to His people. Sanctification, moreover, is peculiarly the work of the Holy Spirit. Thus in the Catechism of 1553 the answer to the question why the Holy Spirit is called holy is: “Not only for His own holiness; but for that by Him are made holy the chosen of God, and members of Christ. And therefore have the Scriptures termed Him the Spirit of sanctification or making holy.”2

The extreme peril of unholy living, which is in effect an open denial of the transforming power of God which the Christian professes to experience, is emphasized, as we have already seen,3 by Thomas Cranmer in the Homily of Faith, where he insists not only that “true faith doth ever bring forth good works”, but also that “thy deeds and works must be an open testimonial of thy faith”.4 “Your duty,” exhorts Thomas Becon, “is to live well, to practise good works, to exercise all godly acts, to lead a virtuous conversation, and in all your life through the study of innocency to seek the glory of God. Now shall your conversation declare and show by external works whether your repentance be unfeigned or not, whether your faith and love toward God be sincere, true, and proceeding from a godly heart or not. For if your repentance, faith, and love be Christian and unfeigned, then shall good works ensue and follow agreeable to the same.” In response to a request for information concerning the good works which God has prepared for us to walk in, he enumerates the following: “He that believeth truly in Christ abuseth not the name of God, profaneth not the sabbath day, dishonoureth not the magistrates of the public weal, contemneth not the ministers of God’s Word, despiseth not his parents and superiors, killeth not, committeth not adultery, stealeth not, beareth no false witness, coveteth not his neighbour’s goods.” To this list of negatives he then adds a number of positive virtues which a Christian should display: “He mortifieth old Adam. He maketh the body subject to the spirit with the moderate use of eating and drinking. He exerciseth himself in godly meditations, in reading the Holy Scriptures, in offering up prayers and thanks continually to God. He succoureth the poor members of Christ. He leaveth no man comfortless. He goeth about to hurt no man, but studieth to profit all men. He wisheth and procureth no less goodness to other than he doth to himself. To be short, all his whole lifetime he doeth nothing else than die to sin and live unto righteousness.” He too insists that “so long as we continue in our old wickedness, and amend not our manners, certainly neither true repentance nor Christian faith is in us, and, to say the truth, neither have we any part of Christ or Christ’s merits, but pertain still to Satan and his sinful synagogue.”5

Preaching on Lk. 1:74f. (“That being delivered out of the hands of our enemies, we might serve Him without fear, in holiness and righteousness before Him all the days of our life”), Archbishop Sandys instructs his hearers that “the greater and better part of Holy Scripture either setteth forth God’s goodness towards us or our duty towards Him”, and that “the great benefit we receive from God is our redemption in Christ”, while “the duty which we owe to Him again is in holiness and righteousness of life continually to serve Him”. He admonishes that “we were not redeemed and bought with a price to be idle and do nothing, but to glorify Him in body and spirit that hath bought us”.6 In asserting that there is a distinction between the terms “holiness” and “righteousness” as used in the verse on which he is preaching, he explains that ‘‘holiness hath relation to the former table7 and righteousness to the latter: in holiness is set forth our duty towards God, in righteousness towards man. We must serve God in holiness in respect of Himself: we must serve man in righteousness in respect of God . . . Holiness”, he proceeds, “is the end of our election: ‘He chose us before the foundation of the world that we might be holy.’8 Our holiness is a thing which God doth greatly desire: ‘This is the will of God, even your holiness’.9 Unto holiness we are not only constrained by His commandment, but allured also by His example: ‘Be holy, because I am holy.’10 Unto this we are called: ‘For God did not call us unto uncleanness, but unto holiness’.11 So that, unless we esteem vilely of our own election, unless we refuse to satisfy the will, to obey the commandment, to follow the example, and to answer the vocation in which God hath called us, we must be holy.”12

THE PRACTICAL NATURE OF HOLINESS

The Reformers conceived of holiness or sanctification, not as a detached state of mystical experience, but as something essentially practical relating to the everyday life and the whole life of the Christian. “To fear God is in true holiness to serve God; to work righteousness is not to hurt but to help our neighbour, to do to others as we would be done unto ourselves,” says Sandys in another sermon. “. . . If the fear of God were planted in our hearts, we would learn after so many admonitions to lead a better life; we would practise such lessons as we have been so long in learning; we would not live in such careless security as we do; the Gospel would take better effect in us, and bring forth more plentiful fruit; we would at length cast away impiety and worldy concupiscence, and live a sober, just, and godly life; we would repent and forsake sin, lest sin procure God’s speedy wrath; the ministers would be more diligent in feeding of the flock, the people more ready to hear the voice of the shepherd, the magistrates more careful over the commonwealth, the subjects more obedient to frame themselves to live under law; the rich would not suffer the giver of their riches to go on begging; the poor would endeavour to get spiritual treasures and to be rich in Christ; finally, we would not feed our bellies so daintily, nor so vainly and superfluously clothe our bodies, but use temperance in diet and sobriety in apparel; having what to eat and wherewith to be clothed, we would be content.”13

The Christian’s religion, indeed, is something which must extend to and inform every sphere of his experience. It is not one aspect among many to be confined to a single compartment of existence. “When we know God,” counsels Jewel, “let us glorify Him as our God; let us so live that our words, our deeds, and our whole life may testify that the kingdom of God is among us.” There is a logic in the wholeness of the Christian’s dedication: “Since Christ suffered all His whole body to be tormented for us, since He suffered all His members to be crucified for our sakes, let us apply ourselves and all our members to serve and please Him in holiness and upright living all the days of our lives.” This is the logic of response to the love of God in Christ Jesus. But, again, the reality of the believer’s union with Christ also demands it: “Let us consider that we are flesh of God’s flesh, bones of his bones, and members of His members. And therefore let us give over our whole bodies, let us give over all our members, let us give over our eyes, our ears, our tongues, our hearts unto the homage and service of God.”14

The Christian, moreover, will not regard the things and entities with which he is surrounded and of which he makes use as ends in themselves, but as belonging to God’s creation and therefore as a means for him to glorify God. “Consider not therefore the beauty, strength, wealth, commodity, and pleasure of any creature in itself,” exhorts Pilkington, “for then it will surely deceive thee: but lift up thy mind to Him that made them for thy use and commodity, and praise Him for His great care that He takes for thee, in making of them and giving thee the use of them.” The Christian knows that “there can be no true love, which is not grounded in God and for His sake: for where God only is sought for, there is love and truth itself; wheresoever He is not, there is neither truth nor true love.” He knows that “that love which is grounded on wordly causes, when the world changes, it fails too”. Accordingly, “he that loveth his God earnestly rejoiceth in nothing so much as when he seeth those things prosper whereby God’s glory may be showed forth. He careth more for that than for his own pleasure and profit. And when such things go backward it grieveth him more than any worldly loss that can fall unto himself.”15

Being fully assured of the absolute sovereignty of almighty God over all the affairs of the universe, and over his own life, the Christian man is undismayed by adversities and persecutions: “When danger comes, the godly-wise man will commit himself wholly to God, looking for help and deliverance at His hands,” says Pilkington again; “or else patiently bears it without any dismaying, whatsoever God lays on him: for he knows well that things are not ruled by fortune, nor that any thing can fall on him without the good will of his good God and loving father. But the wordly-wise man, when he sees worldly wit, power, and polity fail, he thinks all the world fails, and things be without recovery: he trusteth not in God, and therefore no marvel if he be left desolate.” This unshakeable assurance that God is sovereign at all times and over all things will mean that nothing that happens to him will deflect the Christian from the path of duty or deter him from glorifying God. “God, of His great goodness, for the better exercising of our faith hath thus ordered the course of things that, although, when we look into the world, we shall find many things to withdraw us from doing our duties to His Majesty, yet by His Holy Spirit He hath given us faith and hope of His promised goodness, that nothing should discourage us from doing our duties: for we have Him on our side that hath all things at His commandment, and whose purpose none can withstand.”16

Sanctification, while it is the effect of the Holy Spirit’s work in the believing heart, is at the same time a matter of Christian consistency: a man’s life and conduct must tally with his profession of faith; otherwise he is a walking contradiction, inviting the contempt of the world and dishonouring to God. This is well brought out by Bishop Jewel in the following short chain of quotations from his sermons: “Good brethren, let us consider that as many of us as say we know God’s way, we know God’s Word and His Gospel, if virtue follow not, if honest conversation and upright living follow not this our profession, we shame God and dishonour His holy name. Dicunt se nosse Deum, saith St. Paul, sed factis negant: ‘They say they know God’, saith he, they say they know His holy Word and Gospel, ‘but in their deeds they deny God’17 . . . Therefore, if we have the Word of God as a song to delight our ears, if we turn the truth of God’s Gospel into riot and wantonness, if we confess God with our lips and deny Him in our deeds, if we say we know God’s law, we know His commandments, and yet live not thereafter, we do not praise God and confess His name, but we shame God and dishonour His holy name; we cause the people to think evil of God’s Word and slander His Gospel. And this is the cause why the common sort of people judge that not to be the Gospel, which is this day preached and taught unto them; because such as profess the Gospel live not after the Gospel; because such as say they know God’s way walk not in God’s way . . . We are the children of God, the brethren of Christ, and heirs of the everlasting kingdom, we are Christian men, we profess God’s Gospel: let us therefore remember that we must walk as becometh the servants of Christ: we must live like the professors of God’s holy Gospel . . . This day we have heard God’s Gospel preached unto us, this day we have learned out of the Word of God, that, if we be Christians, we should live like Christians; if we be the children of God, we should live as becometh the children of God, without envy, without hatred, without strife or malice . . . This is our profession, this is our religion: hereunto are we called of God, appointed by Christ, and commanded by His holy Word . . . Let us show ourselves in our works to be the children of God and the brethren of Christ: let us not show ourselves Christians in name, and not in deed: let us not love in word alone, but in deed and in verity: let us not requite evil with evil, one mischief with another, but let us (according to St. Paul’s rule) ‘overcome evil with good’, hatred with love, and so fulfil the law of God.18 ... It is not enough to change our religion, it is not sufficient to alter our faith; but we must also change our old life, we must walk in newness of life, we must walk in holiness, we must walk as becometh the professors of a new religion, as becometh them that are of a right faith, as becometh all such as confess God and His Gospel.”19

“ALWAYS JUST AND ALWAYS SINFUL”

In their doctrine of sanctification, however, the Reformers were not perfectionists. It is only when at last, at His appearing, we see Christ face to face that we shall be fully like Him. The prospect of this glorious consummation is a powerful incentive to pure living here and now.20 Sanctification is the process of being “conformed to the image of the Son”, of being “changed into the same image from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord”.21 And this transformation of the Christian into the divine image involves the putting off of “the old man” and the putting on of “the new man”;22 it involves a conflict between the two contrary forces of the flesh and the Spirit.23 The nature and implications of this conflict are expounded by John Bradford in his two brief treatises on The Old Man and the New and on The Flesh and the Spirit. “‘The old man’”, he says, “is like to a mighty giant, such a one as was Goliath; for his birth is now perfect. But ‘the new man’ is like unto a little child, such a one as was David; for his birth is not perfect until the day of his general resurrection. ‘The old man’ therefore is more strong, lusty, and stirring than is ‘the new man’, because the birth of ‘the new man’ is but begun now, and the ‘old man’ is perfectly born. And as ‘the old man’ is more stirring, lusty, and stronger than ‘the new man’, so is the nature of him clean contrary to the nature of ‘the new man’, as being earthly and corrupt with Satan’s seed; the nature of ‘the new man’ being heavenly, and blessed with the celestial seed of God. So that one man, inasmuch as he is corrupt with the seed of the serpent, is an ‘old man’, and inasmuch as he is blessed with the seed of God from above, he is a ‘new man’. And as, inasmuch as he is an ‘old man’, he is a sinner and an enemy to God; so, inasmuch as he is regenerate, he is righteous and holy and a friend to God, the seed of God preserving him from sin, so that he cannot sin as the seed of the serpent.”

For this reason it is possible to speak of the same man as “always just and always sinful:24 just in respect of God’s seed and his regeneration; sinful in respect of Satan’s seed and his first birth. Between these two men therefore there is continual conflict and war most deadly; ‘the flesh and the old man’ fighting against ‘the Spirit and the new man’, and ‘the Spirit and the new man’ fighting against ‘the flesh and the old man’”. If the believer should fall into sin, he is distinguished from the unbeliever in that he does not continue in sin: “This is the difference between God’s children who are regenerate and elect before all time in Christ and the wicked castaways, that the elect lie not still continually in their sin as do the wicked, but at length do return again by reason of God’s seed, which is in them hid as a spark of fire in the ashes; as we may see in Peter, David, Paul, Mary Magdalene, and others”. The very experience of the conflict between the flesh and the Spirit is a distinguishing mark of the children of God: “This battle and strife none have but the elect ‘children of God’: and they that have it are the elect ‘children of God’ ‘in Christ before the beginning of the world’, whose salvation is as certain and sure as is God Himself; for they are given to Christ, a faithful Shepherd, who hath so prayed for them lest they should perish that we know His prayer is heard: yea, He promiseth so to keep them that ‘they shall not perish’.25 And therefore they ought to rejoice, and herethrough to comfort themselves in their conflicts, which are testimonials, and most true, that they are the elect and dear ‘children of God’; for else they could not nor should not feel any such strife in them.”26

In his Meditation of the Presence of God Bradford affirms: “There is nothing that maketh more to true godliness of life than the persuasion of Thy presence, dear Father, and that nothing is hid from Thee, but all to Thee is open and naked, even the very thoughts, which one day Thou wilt reveal and open . . . Grant me that I may always have in mind that day wherein hid works of darkness shall be illumined.”27 This and other Meditations were composed by Bradford while he was in prison awaiting execution. The one “On Following Christ” (which is reminiscent of Thomas a Kempis) reminds us that the pursuit of holiness and Christ-likeness is not without cost: “Many would come to Thee, O Lord, but few will come after Thee. Many would have the reward of Thy saints, but very few will follow their ways: and yet we know, or at least we should know, that the entrance to Thy kingdom and paradise is not from a paradise, but from a wilderness; for we come not from pleasure to pleasure, but from pain to pleasure, or from pleasure to pain, as Thy story of the rich glutton and Lazarus doth something set forth.” Again, in his Admonition to Lovers of the Gospel, he warns against those who are “unwilling to drink of God’s cup of afflictions, which he offereth common with His Son Christ our Lord”, who “walk two ways, that is, they seek to ‘serve God and mammon’, which is impossible”, who “open their eyes to behold present things only”, who “judge of religion after reason, and not after God’s Word”, who “follow the more part, and not the better”, who “profess God with their mouths, but ‘in their hearts they deny Him’, or else they would sanctify Him’ by serving Him more than men”, who “part-stake with God who would have all, giving part to the world”. These, says Bradford, “will have Christ, but none of His cross; which will not be: they will be counted to ‘live godly in Christ’, but yet they ‘will suffer no persecution’”.28

A STATE OF ACTIVITY

Sanctification manifests itself outwardly in Christian living. While it springs from the inward working of the Holy Spirit in the heart, yet it is essentially a state of activity, not of passivity. The Christian is under a solemn responsibility to be active in holiness to the glory of God. Discoursing on the opening petition of the Lord’s Prayer, Latimer explains that it is a challenge to us, not to God, to be holy: “I do not desire that His name be hallowed of Himself, for it needeth not; He is holy already: but I desire that He will give us His Spirit, that we may express Him in all our doings and conversations, so that it may appear by our deeds that God is even such a one indeed as Scripture doth report Him.”29 In justification the sinner is roused from death to newness of life by the sovereign working of almighty God. As Sandys says: “Man never brought one stone to this building; man never laid one finger to this work: it is the only building and work of God, who in tender compassion hath both begun and finished it.”30 In sanctification, however, while it is still the gracious work of God in soul and life, and all the glory still belongs to God alone, man is invited to be a fellow-worker with God. He who has become a new creation in Christ has been brought into the midstream of God’s purposes, and it is his privilege and duty to be a collaborator in the fulfilment of these purposes. He is placed in a position of answerability for the quality of his living. Hence the Apostle’s warning to take heed how we build upon the one foundation (I Cor. 3:10f.). “Let everyone be watchful over his life, that his conversation may be according to his profession,” says Sandys on another occasion. “If we walk disorderly, we shall not walk alone: our example will draw others after it; and their sins we shall answer for. Lucifer fell not alone: he drew company from heaven with him. Jeroboam, being sinful, made Israel to sin . . . We profess Christ and true Christianity: let us not through our lewd life be a slander to our Saviour and a shame to His Gospel.”31

If the Christian should always be on his guard not to lead others astray by the example he sets, he should also beware of the company he keeps, lest he himself should be led astray by the bad example of others. This is a warning which Pilkington gives when he bids us “beware what company we join ourselves unto: for sin in one man is of so great force that it defiles all the company he is in . . . What is a more dangerous thing than to keep company with unthrifts?” he asks. “Have not many, who before they knew such unthriftiness were sober and honest, but after they have been tangled with such evil men sold house and land, some became beggars, and many hanged? Have not many honest young men, by keeping company with swearers and whore-hunters, become open blasphemers, and given themselves to all unhappiness? So, in companying with papists, and to please the world, many have forsaken the truth which they knew and professed, and are become open enemies and persecutors of God and His people. Did not Solomon fall to idolatry with marrying heathen wives? Did not God forbid marriage with the heathen, lest they should entice us to idolatry? Was not Samson overcome in keeping company with Delilah? What a proud presumption then is this to think, I am strong enough, wise enough to take heed to myself, in what company soever I shall come! For except you be wiser than Solomon or stronger than Samson, thou shalt be overcome as they were . . . If thou sit by, hear the truth spoken against, and will not defend it to thy power, thou art guilty to thy Lord God: for Christ saith, ‘He that is not with Me is against Me’.32 If thou speak in God’s cause, thou shalt be in danger of thy life and goods, or both. These things well considered would make them who have the fear of God in them to mark this lesson well, and fly evil company: for whatsoever the evil man, who is defiled in soul, touches, it is defiled.”33

But activity in holiness does not mean activism. Ostentation, the doing of our good deeds to be seen of men and to gain a reputation lor holiness, is the negation of true sanctification, because it seeks glory for self instead of glory for God. God is not deceived by outward display: He looks on the heart to see what is the true reality of our conduct; He examines our living at its very roots. “The life of a Christian man is inward between him and God,” writes Tyndale, “and properly is the consent of the Spirit to the will of God and to the honour of God. And God’s honour is the final end of all good works.” And again: “God looketh not first on thy works as the world doth, as though the beautifulness of the works pleased Him as it doth the world, or as though He had need of them. But God looketh first on thy heart, what faith thou hast to His words, how thou believest Him, trustest Him, and how thou lovest Him for His mercy that He hath showed thee: He looketh with what heart thou workest, and not what thou workest.”34

HOLINESS AND PRAYER

Nor does activity in holiness mean that kind of activism which displays itself in being so restlessly busy and so constantly in the public eye that the inner life of private holiness is neglected. Indeed, this inner holiness is like the oil without which the flame of outward holiness cannot burn. And its chief exercise is that of prayer. “Prayer hath one property before all other good works,” declares Latimer: “for with my alms I help but one or two at once, hut with my faithful prayer I help all. I desire God to comfort all men living, but specially domesticos fidei, ‘those which be of the household of faith’.35 Yet we ought to pray with all our hearts for the others, who believe not, that God will turn their hearts and renew them with His Spirit; yea, our prayers reach so far that our very capital enemy ought not to be omitted.” He accordingly emphasizes “what an excellent thing prayer is, when it proceedeth from a faithful heart; it doth far pass all the good works that men can do”.36

Latimer was speaking of what he knew, for he was a true man of prayer. Augustine Bernher, who had been his servant and afterwards himself became a minister of the Gospel, tells (in his Dedication to the Duchess of Suffolk of Latimer’s sermons on the Lord’s Prayer) of the Reformer’s “earnestness and diligence in prayer, wherein oftentimes so long he continued kneeling that he was not able to rise without help”. He would pray that “as God had appointed him to be a preacher and professor of His Word, so also He would give him grace to stand unto His doctrine until his death”. And “the other thing, the which most instantly with great violence of God’s Spirit he desired, was that God of His mercy would restore the Gospel of His Son Christ unto this realm of England once again; and these words ‘once again, once again’ he did so inculcate and beat into the ears of the Lord God, as though he had seen God before Him, and spake unto Him face to face”. There was also a third “principal matter” with which his prayers were occupied, namely, “the preservation of the queen’s Majesty that now is, [that is, Elizabeth I] whom in his prayer accustomably he was wont to name, and even with tears desired God to make her a comfort to this comfortless realm of England”.

“Were these things desired in vain?” asks Bernher. “Did God despise the prayers of His faithful soldier? No, assuredly; for the Lord did most graciously grant all these his requests. First, concerning profession, even in the most extremity, the Lord graciously assisted him: for when he stood at the stake, without Bocardo gate at Oxford, and the tormentors about to set fire upon him and that most reverend father Doctor Ridley, he lifted up his eyes towards heaven with a most amiable and comfortable countenance, saying these words, Fidelis est Deus, qui non sinit nos tentari supra id quod possumus, ‘God is faithful, who doth not suffer us to be tempted above our strength’:37 and so afterwards by and by shed his blood in the cause of Christ; the which blood ran out of his heart in such abundance that all those who were present, being godly, did marvel to see the most part of the blood in his body so to be gathered to his heart, and with such violence to gush out, his body being opened by the force of the fire. By the which thing God most graciously granted his request, the which was, to shed his heart’s blood in the defence of the Gospel. How mercifully the Lord heard his second request, in restoring His Gospel once again to this realm, these present days can bear record.” As for Latimer’s third request, “it was most effectuously granted to the great praise of God, the furtherance of His Gospel, and to the unspeakable comfort of this realm. For when matters were even desperate, and the enemies mightily nourished and triumphed, God’s Word banished, . . . suddenly the Lord called to remembrance His mercy and made an end of all these miseries, and appointed her for whom that same grey-headed father Latimer so earnestly prayed in his captivity, . . . to restore the temple of God again”.38

Latimer, then, was not engaging in abstract theoretical speculation when he affirmed: “Truly, it is the greatest comfort in the world to talk with God, and to call upon Him, in this prayer that Christ Himself hath taught us; for it taketh away the bitterness of all afflictions. Through prayer we receive the Holy Ghost, who strengtheneth us and comforteth us at all times, in all trouble and peril.”39 Yet Latimer knew, with the saints of every age, that prayer is the most difficult and the most opposed of all the occupations of a Christian. “The flesh resisteth the work of the Holy Ghost in our hearts, and lets [that is, hinders] it, lets it,” he says on another occasion. “We have to pray ever to God. O prayer, prayer! that it might be used in this realm, as it ought to be of all men, and specially of magistrates, of counsellors, of great rulers; to pray, to pray that it would please God to put godly policies in their hearts.”40

Prayer, then, is an exercise of holiness. It is obvious that we cannot expect our prayers to be acceptable to God if our inward intention is not to forsake sin but to continue in unholy living. As Paul admonishes Timothy, the hands we lift up in prayer must be holy hands (I Tim. 2:8). “Only in thy prayer away with the purpose of sinning,” writes Bradford, “for he that prayeth with a purpose to continue in any sin cannot be heard; his own conscience presently condemneth him; he can have no true testimony or assurance of God hearing him . . . God condemned in the old law all spotted sacrifices: away therefore with the spots of purposing to continue in sin. Bid adieu, when thou goest to prayer, bid adieu, I say, and farewell to thy covetousness, to thy uncleanness, swearing, lying, malice, drunkenness, gluttony, idleness, pride, envy, garrulity, slothfulness, negligence, &c. If thou feelest thy wilful and perverse will unwilling thereunto, out of hand complain it to the Lord, and for His Christ’s sake pray Him to reform thy wicked will, put Him in remembrance of His promise sung by the angels Hominibus bona voluntas, that by Christ it should be to His glory to give “to men a good will”, to consent to His will, and therein to delight night and day. The which is that happiness which David singeth of in his first psalm: therefore more earnestly crave it, and cease not till thou get it: for at length the Lord will come in an acceptable time, I warrant thee, and give it thee, and whatsoever else thou shalt ask to His glory, in the name and faith of His dear Christ, who is ‘the door of the tabernacle’ whereat the acceptable sacrifices of God were offered.”41

As the New Testament constantly teaches, prayer is to be offered in the name and for the sake of Jesus Christ. It is the merit of His atoning work, not any worthiness of our own, that makes it possible for us to come in prayer into the presence of almighty God and to address Him as our heavenly Father. In short, our holiness is His holiness. “What thing is it that maketh our prayer acceptable to God?” asks Latimer when preaching before Edward VI. “Is it our babbling? No, no; it is not our babbling, nor our long prayer; there is another thing than it. The dignity and worthiness of our words is of no such virtue. For whosoever resorteth unto God not in the confidence of his own merits, but in the sure trust of the deserving of our Saviour Jesus Christ and in His passion; whosoever doth invoke the Father of heaven in the trust of Christ’s merits, which offering is the most comfortable and acceptable offering to the Father; whosoever, I say, offereth up Christ, which is a perfect offering, he cannot be denied the thing he desireth, so that it be expedient for him to have it.”42

“Remember,” says Bradford again, “how that the children of God have been diligent in prayers always from the beginning, as well in their needs corporal as spiritual. Remember that their prayers have not been in vain, but graciously have they obtained their requests as well for themselves as for others. Remember that God is now the same God, and no less rich in mercy and plentiful to them that truly call upon him:43 and therefore in very many places doth He command us to call upon Him: so that except we will heap sin upon sin, we must needs use prayer. His promises are both universal towards all men, and most free without respect of our worthiness, if so be we acknowledge our unworthiness, and make our prayers in the faith and name of Jesus Christ, who is our Mediator, and sitteth on the right hand of His Father, praying for us, being the same Christ He hath been in times past, and so will be unto the end of the world, to help all such as come to Him.”44

Like Latimer, and indeed all the Reformers, Bradford made a daily practice of prayer. In his introduction to Bradford’s Sermon on Repentance, his friend Thomas Sampson gives some description of Bradford as a man of prayer. “His manner was,” he says, “to make himself a catalogue of all the grossest and most enormous sins which in his life of ignorance he had committed, and to lay the same before his eyes when he went to private prayer, that by the sight and remembrance of them he might be stirred up to offer to God the sacrifice of a contrite heart, seek assurance of salvation in Christ by faith, thank God for his calling from the ways of wickedness, and pray for increase of grace to be conducted in holy life acceptable and pleasing to God. Such a continual exercise of conscience he had in private prayer, that he did not count himself to have prayed to his contentment, unless in it he had felt inwardly some smiting of heart for sin and some healing of that wound by faith, feeling the saving health of Christ, with some change of mind into the detestation of sin, and love of obeying the will of God . . . Without such an inward exercise of prayer our Bradford did not pray to his full contentment, as appeareth by this: he used in the morning to go to the common prayer in the college where he was, and after that he used to make some prayer with his pupils in his chamber; but, not content with this, he then repaired to his own secret prayer and exercise in prayer by himself, as one that had not yet prayed to his own mind: for he was wont to say to his familiars, ‘I have prayed with my pupils, but I have not yet prayed with myself.’”

To this account Sampson adds a warning against the empty formalism of perfunctory prayer: “Let those secure men mark this well, who pray without touch of breast, as the Pharisee did;45 and so that they have said an ordinary prayer, or heard a common course of prayer, they think they have prayed well, and, as the term is, they have served God well; though they never feel sting for sin, taste of groaning, or broken heart, nor of the sweet saving health of Christ, thereby to be moved to offer the sweet sacrifice of thanksgiving, nor change or renewing of mind: but as they came secure in sin and senseless, so they do depart without any change or affecting of the heart; which is even the cradle in which Satan rocketh the sins of this age asleep, who think they do serve God in these cursory prayers made only of custom, when their heart is as far from God as was the heart of the Pharisee. Let us learn by Bradford’s example to pray better, that is, with the heart and not with the lips alone.”46

The following chain of prayers excerpted from the writings of John Bradford will give some indication of the true sanctity and spirituality of this martyr of the Reformation: “O give me plentifully Thy Spirit, whom Thou has promised to ‘pour out upon all flesh’, that thus I may with Thy saints talk with Thee night and day, for Thy only beloved Son’s sake, Jesus Christ our Lord . . . O that I might feel now Thy Spirit so to affect me, that both with heart and mouth I might heartily and in faith pray unto Thee . . . O good Father, for Thy mercy’s sake, give me the true love of mankind; but yet so that I may love man for Thee and in Thee, and always prefer Thy glory above all things, through Christ our Lord . . . O that I might find such favour in Thy sight, dear Father, that Thou wouldest work in me by Thy Holy Spirit a true knowledge of all good things, and hearty love to the same, through Jesus Christ our Lord and only Saviour . . . O help us, and grant that we, being ignorant of things to come, and of the time of our death which to Thee is certain, may so live and finish our journey here that we may be ready, and then depart, when our departing may make most to Thy glory and our comfort through Christ . . . O wonderful passions which Thou sufferedst! In them Thou teachest me, in them Thou comfortest me; for by them God is my Father, my sins are forgiven: by them I should learn to fear God, to love God, to hope in God, to hate sin, to be patient, to call upon God, and never to leave Him for any temptation’s sake, but with Thee still to cry, yea, even when very death shall approach, ‘Father, into Thy hands I commend my spirit’ . . . Forasmuch as the dullness of our hearts, blindness, and corruption are such that we are not able to arise up unto Thee by faithful and hearty prayer, according to our great necessity, without Thy singular grace and assistance; grant unto us, gracious Lord, Thy holy and sanctifying Spirit to work in us this good work, with a pure and clean mind, with an humble and lowly heart, with grace to weigh and consider the need and greatness of that we do desire, and with an assured faith and trust that Thou wilt grant us our requests, because Thou art good and gracious even to young ravens calling upon Thee, much more then to us for whom Thou hast made all things, yea, and hast not spared Thine own dear Son; because Thou hast commanded us to call upon Thee; because Thy throne whereunto we come is a throne of grace and mercy; because Thou hast given us a mediator Christ, to bring us unto Thee, being ‘the way’ by whom we come, being ‘the door’ by whom we enter, and being our ‘head’ on whom we hang, and hope that our poor petitions shall not he in vain, through and for His name’s sake . . . Endue us with Thy Holy Spirit, according to Thy covenant and mercy, as well to assure us of pardon, and that Thou dost accept us into Thy favour as Thy dear children in Christ and for His sake, as to write Thy law in our hearts, and so to work in us that we may now begin and go forwards in believing, living, fearing, obeying, praying, hoping, and serving Thee, as Thou dost require most fatherly and most justly of us, accepting us as perfect through Christ and by imputation. And, moreover, when it shall be Thy good pleasure and most to Thy glory, deliver us, we beseech Thee, out of the hands of Thine adversaries by such means, be it death or life, as may make to our comfort most in Christ. In the mean season and for ever save us and govern us with Thy Holy Spirit and His eternal consolation . . . Dear Father, therefore I pray thee, remember even for Thine own truth and mercy’s sake this promise and everlasting covenant, which in Thy good time I pray thee to write in my heart, that I may ‘know Thee to be the only true God and Jesus Christ whom Thou hast sent’; that I may love Thee with all my heart for ever; that I may love Thy people for Thy sake; that I may be holy in Thy sight through Christ; that I may always not only strive against sin, but also overcome the same daily more and more, as Thy children do; above all things desiring ‘the sanctification of Thy name’, ‘the coming of Thy kingdom’, ‘the doing of Thy will here on earth, as it is in heaven’, through Jesus Christ our Redeemer, Mediator, and Advocate. Amen.”47

Prayer is described by Bishop Pilkington as “a sovereign salve for all sores” and “a sure anchor in all storms”. “Happy is that man that diligently useth it at all times,” he says. “But he that will so effectually pray that he may obtain the thing he desireth, must first prostrate himself in the sight of his God,... forsaking himself as unable to help himself, condemning himself as unworthy to receive such a blessing at the Lord’s hand; and yet nothing doubting but that his God, that never forsaketh them that unfeignedly fly unto Him, will deal with him in mercy and not in justice, deliver him and comfort him, not for any goodness that He findeth in him, but of His own mere pity, love, grace, and mercy . . . He that findeth anything in himself, to help and comfort himself withal, needeth not to pray; but he that seeth and feeleth his present want and necessity, he will beg earnestly, crave eagerly, confessing where his relief is to be had. No man will pray for that thing which he hath or thinketh himself to have: but we ever ask, desire, beg, and pray for that we want. Let us therefore in all our supplications and prayers unto the Lord first confess our beggarly poverty and unableness to help ourselves, the want of His heavenly grace and fatherly assistance; and then our gracious God will plenteously pour His blessings into our empty souls, and fill them with His grace. If we be full already, there is no room left to take any more: therefore we must know ourselves to be empty and hungry, or else we shall not earnestly desire this heavenly comfort from above, which is requisite in all prayer.”48

LOVING ONE’S NEIGHBOUR

The Gospel of the Reformers was certainly not deficient in social emphasis. While, the thrust of the Gospel is initially spiritual, directed to the innermost core of man’s being and designed to satisfy his spiritual need, which is the seat of all his needs, yet the Reformers had a clear perception that the faith of Christ in its out-workings must penetrate to and govern every sphere of human life and experience. The man who is saved by Christ is saved in the whole of his being and in all his relationships. It is not for him either to seal off any part of his life from the rule of God or to seal himself off from his fellow-men in individualistic isolation. Love, as we have been reminded, is the fruit of faith; and that love must, in accordance with the divine law, extend not only to God but also to one’s neighbour. The frequency with which the Reformers insist on the Christian’s responsibility to his neighbour, and that means to all other men, is most noteworthy. This responsibility is, it the profoundest level, to bring the good news of Jesus Christ to others; but it is also to do one’s utmost to come to the aid of all, including one’s enemies, who are in trouble or distress of any kind. The logic of this, for the Christian, is that Christ by His amazing grace in coming to our aid has set us an example which we are bound to follow. The spirit of Christ’s love and humility should he seen in all His followers. “How did our most blessed Saviour Christ utterly neglect and cast away, as I may so speak, His own glory, honour, and worship, to seek our health, comfort, and salvation!” exclaims Thomas Becon. “This ready assistance and help ought also to be in us, if we pertain unto Christ. For we ought to have that care for our neighbour that Christ had for us, or else walk we not according to charity.”49

“But whom must we love?” inquires Archbishop Sandys. “‘Thou shalt love thy neighbour.’ And who is our neighbour? Not he only to whom we are joined by familiar acquaintance, by alliance, or nearness of dwelling; but whosoever doth need our help, he is our neighbour, be he Jew or Gentile, Christian or ml’idel, yea, friend or enemy, he is our neighbour. To him we ought to be near to do him good. It is frivolous for thee to object, ‘He is mine enemy, he hath many ways wronged me, he hath raised slanderous reports of me, he hath practised against me, spoiled and robbed me: how can I love him?’ If Christ loved His friends only, He had never loved thee, whosoever thou art. Look upon Him whose hands were stretched out upon the cross for His enemies, and for thee when thou wast His foe. No man proposeth him as a pattern to be followed whom in his heart he doth mislike. Thou mislikest thine enemy because he hateth thee: if thou hate him, then dost thou imitate the very thing which thou hatest. Love thy neighbour therefore without exception, and love him as thyself . .. We never weary in doing good to ourselves; but to do good to others we have no sooner begun but we are even tired. Ourselves we love not in word and show, but in truth and in deed . . . The name of strife and contention would never be heard of if we were thus affected towards others. The only breach of peace is the want of love: he that loveth all men will have peace with all men.”50

Becon explains somewhat more fully what love of one’s neighbour involves for the Christian: “If ye perceive him to be ignorant of the law of God, teach him God’s Word, bring him unto Christ, teach him where, of whom, and by what means he shall obtain health and salvation,” he exhorts. “Declare to him what the true and Christian faith is, and of what great strength, virtue, efficacy, and power it is. Exhort him unto the true good works which God approveth by His Word, and leaveth not unrewarded. Charge him to fly unto the name of God, as unto a strong bulwark, in all his adversity and trouble. Furthermore, if ye perceive that he is given altogether to wickedness and will not gladly hear any wholesome admonition, yet cease not to pray for him, as Abraham did for the filthy Sodomites and Moses for the disobedient Jews.51 Yea, though he be your extreme enemy and seeketh your life yet wish him well unto you, pray for him, and desire God to forgive him, as Christ and Stephen did.52 Again, if ye perceive that he is poor and hath need of your help, fail not to succour his misery and to help him in his need, even to the uttermost of your power. To make an end, if ye perceive that your neighbour hath need of anything that ye are able to do for him, I charge you in God’s behalf that ye with all expedition help and comfort him.”53

In a letter to Bullinger dated 27 January (probably in 1546) John Hooper expresses his desire “to serve my godly brethren in Christ, and the ungodly for Christ: for I do not think that a Christian is born for himself, or that he ought to live to himself, but that whatever he has or is he ought altogether to ascribe, not to himself, but to refer it to God as the author, and regard everything that he possesses as common to all, according as the necessities and wants of his brethren may require.”54 By way of illustration that the Reformers loved their neighbours in practice as well as in theory, we may turn to Latimer’s first sermon on the Lord’s Prayer in the course of which, having described how he was converted through Bilney’s faithful witness, he says that he used to go with Bilney to visit the prisoners in the tower at Cambridge: “for he was ever visiting prisoners and sick folk.”55 On another occasion, when correcting the misconception of the so-called “religious” or monastic life, Latimer declares: “Religion, pure religion, I say, standeth not in wearing of a monk’s cowl, but in righteousness, justice, and well-doing, and, as St. James saith, in visiting the orphans, and widows that lack their husbands, orphans that lack their parents; to help them when they be poor, to speak for them when they be oppressed: herein standeth true religion, God’s religion, I say.”56

With reference to the petition, “Give us this day our daily bread”, in this same sermon, Latimer advises his hearers that to offer such a prayer (indeed, he might equally well have said any prayer) is to take one’s place as a beggar: “Here we be admonished of our estate and condition, what we be, namely, beggars. For we ask bread: of whom? Marry, of God. What are we then? Marry beggars: the greatest lords and ladies in England are but beggars before God. Seeing then that we all are but beggars, why should we then disdain and despise poor men?” And in pointing out the implication of the plural pronoun “us” he explains: “When I say, ‘Give us this day our daily bread’, I pray not for myself only, if I ask as He biddeth me; but I pray for all others. Wherefore say I not, ‘Our Father, give me this day my daily bread’? Because God is not my God alone: He is a common God. And here we be admonished to be friendly, loving, and charitable one to another: for what God giveth, I cannot say, ‘This is my own’; but I must say, ‘This is ours’. For the rich man cannot say, ‘This is mine alone; God hath given it unto me for my own use’. Nor yet hath the poor man any title unto it, to take it away from him. No, the poor man may not do so; for when he doth so he is a thief before God and man. But yet the poor man hath title to the rich man’s goods; so that the rich man ought to let the poor man have part of his riches to help and to comfort him withal. Therefore when God sendeth unto me much, it is not mine, but ours; it is not given unto me alone, but I must help my poor neighbours withal.”57

So, too, Tyndale, with his gift for saying things felicitously, affirms that “neighbour is a word of love; and signifieth that a man should be ever nigh, and at hand, and ready to help in time of need”.58 He also draws attention to the logical foundation on which the love of one’s neighbour rests. The man who has God’s Spirit understands, he says, “that good works are nothing but fruits of love, compassion, mercifulness, and of a tenderness of heart which a Christian man hath to his neighbour; and that love springeth of that love which he hath to God, to His will and commandments; and he understandeth also that the love which man hath to God springeth of that infinite love and bottomless mercy which God in Christ showed first to us”. Accordingly, “a Christian man feeleth that that unspeakable love and mercy which God hath to us, and that Spirit who worketh all things that are wrought according to the will of God, and that love wherewith we love God, and that love which we have to our neighbour, and that mercy and compassion which we show on him, and also that eternal life which is laid up in store for us in Christ, are altogether the gift of God through Christ’s purchasing”.59 And in his Obedience of a Christian Man there is this fine passage: “Christ is the cause why I love thee, why I am ready to do the uttermost of my power for thee, and why I pray for thee. And as long as the cause abideth, so long lasteth the effect: even as it is always day so long as the sun shineth. Do therefore the worst thou canst unto me, take away my goods, take away my good name; yet as long as Christ remaineth in my heart, so long I love thee not a whit the less, and so long art thou as dear unto me as mine own soul, and so long I pray for thee with all my heart: for Christ desireth it of me, and hath deserved it of me. Thine unkindness compared unto His kindness is nothing at all; yea, it is swallowed up as a little smoke of a mighty wind, and is no more seen or thought upon . . . Thus Christ is all, and the whole cause why I love thee.”60

HOLINESS AND TEMPTATION (OR TESTING)

Temptations, so far from being obstacles, should be welcomed by the Christian as rungs in the ladder of his sanctification. They are, Latimer asserts, “a declaration of God’s favour and might: for though we be most weak and feeble, yet through our weakness God vanquisheth the great strength and might of the devil”. A distinguishing mark of those who love God is that “they fight
against temptations and assaults of the devil”. Urging us to remember that our life is a warfare, “let us be contented to be tempted”, he says, “. . . For there is nothing so dangerous in the world as to be without trouble, without temptation. For look, when we be best at ease, when all things go with us according unto our will and pleasure, then we are commonly most farthest off from God. For our nature is so feeble that we cannot bear tranquillity; we forget God by and by: therefore we should say, Proba me, ‘Lord, prove me, and tempt me’” — remembering always that “God will not suffer us to be tempted further than we shall be able to bear”, and that ahead there is the crown of everlasting life awaiting us.61

The endurance of suffering and persecution for Christ’s sake is a special test of the reality of the faith which a man professes and also a means of his sanctification. If ever any knew the purifying power of fiery trials it was the Reformers of the sixteenth century. “It is good and needful for us to have afflictions and exercises,” preaches Latimer; “for, as St. Augustine saith, Sanguis Christianorum est veluti semen fructuum evangelicorum: ‘The blood of Christians is, as it were, the seed of the fruit of the Gospel.’ For when one is hanged here, and another yonder, then God goeth sowing of His seed. For like as the corn that is cast into the ground riseth up again and is multiplied, even so the blood of one of those who suffer for God’s Word’s sake stirreth up a great many. And happy is he to whom it is given to suffer for God’s holy Word’s sake! For it is the greatest promotion that a man can have in this world to die for God’s sake, or to be despised or contemned for His sake.”62 Christ our Saviour promised unto us that we should be sufferers here in this world, and then in the world to come we shall have life everlasting. Therefore let us be content; for though it be a hard journey, yet there shall be a good end of it. Like as when a man goeth a great journey, and laboureth very sore, but in the end he cometh to good cheer, then all his labour is forgotten; so we shall come at the end to that felicity which no eyes have seen, no ears have heard, nor heart perceived, which God hath prepared for His elect.”63

In preaching on the parable of the great banquet (Mt. 22) Latimer characteristically describes the various courses which the heavenly King has prepared for those who come to the marriage of His Son, and in doing so likens the sufferings of our present pilgrimage to “certain sauces” which give us a relish for Christ. “This feast, this costly dish,” he says, “hath its sauces; but what be they? Marry, the cross, affliction, tribulation, persecution, and all manner of miseries: for like as sauces make lusty the stomach to receive meat, so affliction stirreth up in us a desire to Christ. For when we be in quietness we are not hungry, we care not for Christ: but when we be in tribulation, and cast into prison, then we have a desire to Him; then we learn to call upon Him; then we hunger and thirst after Him; then we are desirous to feed upon Him. As long as we be in health and prosperity we care not for Him; we be slothful, we have no stomach at all; and therefore these sauces are very necessary for us ... Therefore it cometh of the goodness of God when we be put to taste the sauce of tribulation: for He doth it to a good end, namely, that we should not be condemned with this wicked world. For these sauces are very good for us; for they make us more hungry and lusty to come to Christ and feed upon Him.”64

“Although persecution be great,” says Pilkington in his Exposition of the Prophet Haggai, “yet God strengthens His to die for His truth in most quiet peace to the shame of their persecutors. Where there is no striving there is no victory; where there is no victory, there is no praise nor reward: therefore God of His great love, that His people may have most noble victories and greatest reward, suffereth them to be troubled by the devil and his ministers, but not to be overcome.” And again, when expounding Obadiah 17, he declares: “Thus is this ever true, that in Zion, the true church of Christ, shall be the ‘Holy One’, Christ, sanctifying all that believe in Him; there shall be ‘holiness’ in faith, religion, and manners, to the praise of God; there shall be also ‘a sanctuary and holy place’ with assemblies, in spite of their foes; and persecution does not hurt, but rather increase and further true religion, though not in the greater yet in the better part of men. For whosoever the Holy Ghost does inflame with an earnest zeal to His religion, they cannot keep it within them; they cannot abide to see their God and His Word blasphemed; they will burst out and declare their faith.”65

Bishop Jewel comments as follows on the “joy of the Holy Ghost” (I Thess. 1:6): “This is that which passeth all natural sense and wisdom. Many seem to take in good part and abide patiently afflictions, loss of goods, imprisonment, and loss of life. But no man can rejoice in the suffering of these things, but the child of God; no man, but whom Christ hath chosen out of the world, but whose name is written in the book of life, but he in whom the Spirit beareth witness with his spirit that he is the child of God. He knoweth that through many tribulations he must enter into rest. He knoweth the wicked could have no power over him unless it were given them from above. He knoweth that all is done for the best to them that love God, and that God can dispose means, if it were so expedient, to bring to nought all the devices of the ungodly.” And in commenting on I Thess. 3:3 (“that no man should be moved with these afflictions; for ye yourselves know that we are appointed therunto”) he says: “Think not that you shall enjoy the pleasures of this world, if you be the faithful servants of Christ. Christ shed His blood for thee, that thou shouldest not refuse to give thy blood for Him. Drink the cup of bitter gall whereof Christ began to thee, and carry thy cross, that thou mayest follow after Him. If thou be ashamed of Christ, He shall be ashamed of thee before His Father in heaven: the cross cannot hurt thee, for Christ hath sanctified it in His blood. Behold not the sword which niketh thee, but think on the crown of glory which thou shalt receive. Gold is clearer after it hath been put into the fire: be thou gold, and the fiery persecution shall not hurt thee. Let not the fear of death put out thy faith. Trust in the Lord, be strong, and He shall stablish thy heart. Be rooted and built in Christ and stablished in the faith. Then shall thy heart rejoice, and no man shall take thy joy from thee.”66


Notes

  1. Tyndale: Works, Vol. I, p. 57.
  2. Liturgies of King Edward VI, p. 514.
  3. Pp. 36f. above.
  4. Cranmer: Works, Vol. II, p. 140.
  5. Becon: Works, Vol. I, pp. 80ff.
  6. Cf. I Cor. 6:20
  7. The reference is to the two tables of the decalogue.
  8. Eph. 1:4.
  9. I Thess.4:3
  10. I Pet, 1:
  11. I Thess. 4:7
  12. Sandys: Sermons, pp. 177, 182, 190. 6
  13. Sandys: Works, pp. 279f.
  14. Jewel: Works, Vol. II, pp. 1034, 1062, 1068
  15. Pilkington: Works, pp. 230, 240, 351
  16. Pilkington: Works, pp. 245, 351f.
  17. Tit. 1:16
  18. Rom. 12:21; cf. I Cor. 4:12; I Pet. 2:21 ff.
  19. Jewel: Works, Vol. II, pp. 1056, 1060, 1075, 1091
  20. I Jn. 3:2f.
  21. Rom. 8:29, II Cor. 3:18
  22. Col. 3:9f.
  23. Gal. 5:16ff.
  24. The expression is reminiscent of Luther’s “simul justus et peccator”.
  25. Jn. 10:38, 17:9ff.
  26. Bradford: Works, Vol. I, pp. 297ff.
  27. Cf.Heb.4:12ff.
  28. Bradford: Works, Vol. I, pp. 193, 252f., 409
  29. Latimer: Works, Vol. I, p. 345
  30. Sandys: Works, p. 181
  31. Sandys: Works, p. 397
  32. Mt. 12:30
  33. Pilkington: Works, p. 169f.
  34. Tyndale: Works, Vol. I, pp. 90, 100
  35. Cf. Gal. 6:10
  36. Latimer: Works, Vol. I, pp. 338f.
  37. 1 Cor. 10:13
  38. Latimer: Works, Vol. I, pp. 322f.
  39. Latimer: Ibid., p. 444
  40. Latimer: Ibid., p. 228
  41. Bradford: Works, Vol. I, pp. 22f.
  42. Latimer: Works, Vol. I, p. 172
  43. Cf. Rom. 10:12
  44. Bradford, Works, Vol. I, p. 22.
  45. See the parable of the Pharisee and the publican, Lk. 18:10ff., in which, in contrast to the self-righteous Pharisee, the publican “smote upon his breast, saying, ‘God be merciful to me a sinner.’”
  46. Bradford: Works, Vol. I, pp. 33f.
  47. Bradford: Works, Vol. I, pp. 174, 175, 177, 189, 199, 200f., 204
  48. Pilkington: Works, pp. 405, 411f.
  49. Becon: Works: Vol. I, p. 223
  50. Sandys: Works, pp. 205f.
  51. Gen. 18:23ff., Ex. 32:31f.
  52. Lk. 23:34, Acts 7:60.
  53. Becon: Works, Vol. I, pp. 227f.
  54. Hooper: in Original Letters relative to the English Reformation, Vol. I, p. 34.
  55. Latimer: Works, Vol. I, p. 335
  56. Latimer: Op. cit., p. 392. Cf. Jas. 1:27
  57. Latimer: Ibid., pp. 397f.
  58. Tyndale: Works, Vol. I, p. 85
  59. Tyndale: Works, Vol. I, pp. 108f.
  60. Tyndale: Ibid., p. 298
  61. Latimer: Works, Vol. I, pp. 434ff.
  62. Latimer: Ibid., p. 361
  63. Latimer: Ibid., p. 490. Cf. I Cor. 2:9
  64. Latimer: Works, Vol. I, pp. 463ff.
  65. Pilkington: Works, pp. 158f., 264.
  66. Jewel: Works, Vol. II, pp. 823f., 844

Author

Philip Edgcumbe Hughes was a visiting professor of New Testament at Westminster Theological Seminary in Philadelphia, Pa. Dr. Hughes received his B.A., M.A., and D.L.H. from the University of Cape Town, his B.D. from the University of London, and his Th.D. from the Australian College of Theology. One of the finest minds in New Testament studies today, Dr. Hughes has written the Commentary on Paul’s Second Epistle to the Corinthians (N.I.C. NT. Series) and has contributed to and edited numerous works including Creative Minds in Contemporary Theology.


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