Rev. Ronald Hanko





256 Birth of Arius.

274 Birth of Constantine the Great.

295 Birth of Athanasius.

306 Death of Constantine Chlorus, father of Constantine the Great.

312 Battle of the Milvian Bridge.
       Alexander becomes Bishop of Alexandria.

313 Edict of Milan (Third Edict of Toleration).

318 First outbreak of Arianism.

323 Battle of Chrysopolis; Constantine becomes sole Emperor. Council at Alexandria deposes Arius.
       A council in Bithynia vindicates Arius.
       June 19, 325 The COUNCIL OF NICEA

328 Death of Alexander.
       Consecration of Athanasius.

329 Synod at Antioch, Eustathius deposed.

335 The Council of Tyre.
       First exile of Athanasius.

336 Death of Arius.

337 Death of Constantine the Great, accession of his three sons. Restoration of Athanasius.

339 Council at Alexandria vindicates Nicene doctrine. Second exile of Athanasius.

340 Murder of Constantine II.

341 Death of Eusebius of Nicomedia.
       A council at Rome vindicates Athanasius.
       The Dedication Council at Antioch (four creeds).

343 Councils at Sardica and Philipopolis.

346 Council of Milan.

347 Restoration of Athanasius.

350 Death of Constans.

351 First Council of Sirmium.

353 Constantius becomes sole Emperor. Second Council of Arles.

355 Second Council of Milan, Athanasius deposed.

356 George of Cappadocia made Bishop of Alexandria. Beginning of Athanasius’ third exile.

357 Second Council of Sirmium, (the second creed of Sirmium).

358 Third Council of Sirmium (the Dated Creed). Expulsion of George from Alexandria.

359 Double Council at Ariminium and Selucia.
       Council at Nice.
       Beginning of Macedonianism.

360 Dedication Council at Constantinople.

361 Death of Constantius, accession of Julian the Apostate.

362 Restoration of Athanasius.
       Council at Alexandria.
       Fourth exile of Athanasius.
       Outbreak of Apollinarianism.

363 Death of Julian, accession of Jovian.

364 Restoration of Athanasius.
       Death of Jovian, accession of Valentinian (West) and Valens (East).

365 Fifth exile and restoration of Athanasius.

373 Death of Athanasius.

375 Death of Valentinian, accession of Gratian.

378 Death of Valens, accession of Theodosius.

381 Second Ecumenical Council (Constantinople).

383 Death of Gratian, accession of Valentinian II.

  * Many of the dates given here are only approximate.



We believe in one God the Father Almighty:

And in the Lord Jesus Christ, His Son, who was begotten of Him before all ages, the Divine Logos, through whom all things were made, both those in the heavens and those on the earth; who came down and was made flesh, and suffered, and rose again, and ascended to the heavens, and shall come again to judge the living and the dead:

And in the Holy Spirit; and in the resurrection of the flesh; and in the life of the world to come; and in a kingdom of heaven; and in one Catholic Church of God from the ends to the ends of the earth.



We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of all things visible and invisible:

And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Word of God, God of God, Light of Light, Life of Life, the only-begotten Son, first-born of all creation, begotten of God the Father before all worlds, through whom also all things were made; who for our salvation was made flesh, and lived his life among men; and suffered, and rose on the third day; and ascended to the Father; and will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead:

And in one Holy Spirit.

We believe that each of these is and exists, the Father truly father, and the Son truly son, and the Holy Spirit truly holy spirit; even as our Lord, when sending forth His disciples to preach, said: “Go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them into the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.”

And concerning these things we affirm that we so hold and so think, and have of old so held, and will so hold till death, and stand steadfast in this faith, anathematizing all ungodly heresy. We testify before Almighty God and our Lord Jesus Christ that we have thought all this in heart and soul ever since we knew ourselves, and we now so think and speak in truth, being able to show by evidence and to convince you that we in past times so believed and preached accordingly.



The faith is as follows: to believe in one God, the Father Almighty, incomprehensible, immutable and unchangeable, protector and ruler of the universe, just, good, maker of heaven and earth and of all the things in them, Lord of the law and of the prophets and of the new covenant;

and in one Lord Jesus Christ, only begotten Son, begotten not from that which is not but from the Father, not as made but as properly an offspring, but begotten in an ineffable, indescribable manner, because only the Father Who begot and the Son Who was begotten know (for ‘no one knows the Father but the Son, nor the Son but the Father’), Who exists everlastingly and did not at one time not exist. For we have learned from the Holy Scriptures that He alone is the express image, not (plainly) as if He might have remained unbegotten from the Father, nor by adoption (for it is impious and blasphemous to say this); but the Scriptures describe Him as validly and truly begotten as Son, so that we believe Him to be immutable and unchangeable, and that He was not begotten and did not come to be by volition or by adoption, so as to appear to be from that which is not, but as it befits Him to be begotten; not (a thing which it is not lawful to think) according to likeness or nature or commixture with any of the things which came to be through Him, but in a way which passes all understanding or conception or reasoning we confess Him to have been begotten of the unbegotten Father, the divine Logos, true light, righteousness, Jesus Christ, Lord and Saviour of all. For He is the express image, not of the will or of anything else, but of His Father’s very substance.

This Son, the divine Logos, having been born in flesh from Mary the Mother of God and made incarnate, having suffered and died, rose again from the dead and was taken up into heaven, and sits on the right hand of the Majesty most high, and will come to judge the living and the dead.

Furthermore, as in our Saviour, the holy Scriptures teach us to believe also in one Spirit, one Catholic Church, the resurrection of the dead and a judgment of requital according to whether a man has done well or badly in the flesh.

And we anathematize those who say or think or preach that the Son of God is a creature or has come into being or has been made and is not truly begotten, or that there was when He was not. For we believe that He was and is and that He is light. Furthermore, we anathematize those who suppose that He is immutable by His own act of will, just as those who derive His birth from that which is not, and deny that He is immutable in the way the Father is. For just as our Saviour is the image of the Father in all things, so in this respect particularly He has been proclaimed the Father’s image.



We believe, conformably to the evangelical and apostolical tradition, in one God, the Father Almighty, the Framer, and Maker, and Provider of the universe, from whom are all things.

And in one Lord Jesus Christ, His Son, Only-begotten God (John 1:18), by whom are all things, who was begotten before all ages from the Father, God from God, whole from whole, sole from sole, perfect from perfect, King from King, Lord from Lord, Living Word, Living Wisdom, true Light, Way, Truth, Resurrection, Shepherd, Door, both unalterable and unchangeable; exact image of the Godhead, Essence, Will, Power, and Glory of the Father; the first-born of every creature, who was in the beginning with God, God the Word, as it is written in the Gospel, “and the Word was God” (John 1:1); by whom all things were made, and in whom all things consist (Col. 1:17); who in the last days descended from above, and was born of a virgin according to the Scriptures, and was made man, Mediator between God and man, and Apostle of our faith, and Prince of life, as He says, “I came down from heaven, not to do Mine own will, but the will of Him that sent Me” (John 6:38); who suffered for us and rose again on the third day, and ascended into heaven, and sat down on the right hand of the Father, and is coming again with glory and power, to judge quick and dead.

And in the Holy Ghost, who is given to those who believe for comfort, and sanctification, and initiation, as also our Lord Jesus Christ enjoined His disciples, saying, “Go ye, teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost” (Matt. 28:19); namely, of a Father who is truly Father, and a Son who is truly Son, and of the Holy Ghost who is truly Holy Ghost, the names not being given without meaning or effect, but denoting accurately the peculiar subsistence, rank, and glory of each that is named, so that they are three in subsistence, and in agreement one.

Holding then this faith, and holding it in the presence of God and Christ, from beginning to end, we anathematise every heretical heterodoxy. And if any teaches beside the sound and right faith of the Scriptures, that time, or season, or age, either is or has been before the generation of the Son, be he anathema. Or if anyone says that the Son is a creature as one of the creatures, or an offspring as one of the offsprings, or a work as one of the works, and not the aforesaid articles one after another, as the Divine Scriptures have delivered, or if he teaches or preaches beside what we have received, be he anathema. For all that has been delivered in the Divine Scriptures, whether by prophets or apostles, do we truly and reverently both believe and follow.



We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Creator and Maker of all things; from whom all fatherhood in heaven and earth is named (Eph. 3:15).

And in His Only-begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, who before all ages was begotten from the Father, God from God, Light from Light, by whom all things were made in the heavens and on the earth, visible and invisible, being Word, and Wisdom, and Power, and Life, and True Light; who in the last days was made man for us, and was born of the Holy Virgin; who was crucified, and dead, and buried, and rose again from the dead the third day, and was taken up into heaven, and sat down on the right hand of the Father; and is coming at the consummation of the age, to judge quick and dead, and to render to everyone according to his works; whose kingdom endures indissolubly into the infinite ages; for He shall be seated on the right hand of the Father, not only in this age but in that which is to come.

And in the Holy Ghost; that is the Paraclete; which having promised to the apostles, He sent forth after His ascension into heaven, to teach them and to remind of all things; through whom also shall be sanctified the souls of those who sincerely believe in Him.

But those who say that the Son was from nothing, or from some other substance and not from God, and there was time when He was not, the Catholic Church regards as aliens.



We believe in one Only and True God, the Father Almighty, Creator and Framer of all things. And in one Only-begotten Son of God, who, before all ages, and before all origin, and before all conceivable time, and before all comprehensible essence, was begotten impassibly from God: through whom the ages were disposed and all things were made; and Him begotten as the Only-begotten, Only from the Only Father, God from God, like to the Father who begat Him, according to the Scriptures; whose origin no one knoweth save the Father alone who begat Him. We know that He, the Only-begotten Son of God, at the Father’s bidding came from the heavens for the abolishment of sin, and was born of the Virgin Mary, and conversed with the disciples, and fulfilled all the Economy according to the Father’s will, was crucified and died and descended into the parts beneath the earth, and regulated the things there, whom the gate-keepers of hell saw (Job 38:17) and shuddered; and He rose from the dead the third day, and conversed with the disciples, and fulfilled all the Economy, and when the forty days were full, ascended into the heavens, and sitteth on the right hand of the Father, and is coming in the last day of the resurrection in the glory of the Father, to everyone according to his works. And in the Holy Ghost, whom the Only-begotten of God Himself, Jesus Christ, had promised to send to the race of men, the Paraclete, as it is written: “I go to My Father, and I will ask the Father, and He shall send you another Paraclete, even the Spirit of Truth, He shall take of Mine and shall teach and bring to your remembrance all things” (John 14:16, 17, 26; 16:14). But whereas the term “essence” has been adopted by the Fathers in simplicity, and gives offence as being misconceived by the people, because it is not contained in the Scriptures, it has seemed good to remove it, that no mention of “essence” with regard to God should be made at all in the future, because the Divine Scriptures nowhere mention “essence” of the Father and Son. But we say the Son is like the Father in all things, as also the Holy Scriptures say and teach.



We believe in one God the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible:

And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten of His Father before all worlds, (God of God), Light of Light, true God of true God, begotten not made being of one substance with the Father, through whom all things were made who for us men and for our salvation came down from heaven and made flesh of the Holy Ghost and the Virgin Mary, and entered humanity; and crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate, and suffered and was buried, and rose again the third day, according to the Scriptures, and ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of the Father, and shall come again with glory to judge the living and the dead, whose kingdom shall have no end.

And in the Holy Spirit, the lord and Giver of Life, who proceedeth from the Father (and the Son), who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified, who spake through the Prophets in the catholic and apostolic Church.

We acknowledge one baptism unto remission of sins. We look for the resurrection of the dead; and the life of the world to come.



According to faith of God’s elect, God’s prudent ones,
Holy children, rightly dividing, God’s Holy Spirit receiving,
Have I learned this from the partakers of wisdom,
Accomplished, divinely taught, and wise in all things.
Along their track, have I been walking, with like opinions,
I the very famous, the much suffering for God’s glory;
And taught of God, I have acquired wisdom and knowledge.
Quoted in Athanasius, Orationes Contra Arianos, I, ii, 5.


Ronald Hanko was the minister of the Word of God in the Wyckoff Protestant Reformed Church in Wyckoff, New Jersey

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