Yes, the apostles taught this in scripture. It is your faulty interpretation that is the problem. I gave some quotes from early writers upholding calvinism. However, I see no reason to believe everything, doctrinally, was settled prior to 200a.d., by matter of council. Scripture was finished, and we had the truth. However, definitions of the trinity, formation of a canon, and various other matters were still being dealt with. Your assertion that since nobody put forth calvinistic beliefs makes it false is itself a false claim. The claim that doctrine had to be settled by a specific date is also out of sync with church history.
The Apostles did not teach limited atonement. That is the whole point. Nor total depravity, It has nothing to do with my interpretation. I would not attempt to interpret what the Holy Spirit has not only given once to all for all and has stated quite clearly that man should not interpret His Truth.
On the other hand why would it be necessary. He gave us All Truth and the Holy Spirit guards, protects and guides members of His Body in that Truth preserving it in that Body. of which He is Head. The fact that the Truth is consistant through history is the authentication of the work of the Holy Spirit.
The only Church Father you mentioned is Clement of Rome who was a disciple of both Peter and Paul, the 3rd Bishop of Rome and He taught universal redemption as your quote clearly stated.
So who taught total depravity and actually adopted it as doctrine. I'm not familiar enought with Roman Catholic theology but I know they accepted much of St Augustine. If not, it was first a doctrine, outside of a teaching, by the protestants with Calvin. Did Luther believe in total depravity as well? That hardly makes it Gospel from the beginning. Predestination is spoken of but dies not have the meaning you ascribe to it and it never is connected to election which is not taught either until Augustine and again not put into doctrine until the Protestant Reforrmation. Catholics do not believe in election.
Since Christianity has a 2000 year history there have been a lot of teachings. But teachings do not make doctrine. Most have been condenmned because they rarely follow the understanding of the faithful of the Truth once given.

A council does not develop doctrine. In all cases they show by the apophatic method what something is not based on the false teaching which prompted the council. Doctrine does not come from the Bible. Doctrine comes from and was given as the Truth that the Apostles delievered. The Bible recorded some of it, explained some, implied others. To understand the written portion one must have the whole, the Oral and the practice that was established even before the written came into being almost 25 years after the Ascension. We have plenty of early documents, including the Epistles of Clement, the Didache written in the first century, and many others that attest and validate the scriptures. Truth lies in the Church, The Body of Christ. I Tim 3:15.

The claim that doctrine had to be settled by a specific date is also out of sync with church history.
It was never a matter of being settled. They had it from the beginning. There is nothing in the Bible that they did not have from the beginning and understood it the same as the Church does today. That is what makes it Gospel. It is not a development thing, a deductionist method and surely not individual man determining for himself just what the Bible means in opposition to the way the Holy Spiirt works and in oppostion to the prohibition to private interpretation.. II Pet 1:20.