Obj. 1. The Word, by which is meant this preacher Jesus, was made flesh, that is, a mortal man.

Ans. This is a bold and manifest corruption of the meaning of God's word. The Word is said to have been God before he assumed our flesh (through him all things were made) to have come to his own, to enlighten every man that cometh into the world, was made flesh, and has imparted of his fullness to us all. Therefore, this Word was before all men. He was even before Adam himself, whilst Abraham and Moses were illuminated by him, and received out of his fullness. “I am the living bread which came down from Heaven.” “Christ went by the Spirit in the days of Noah and preached to the spirits that are in prison, which were disobedient in times past.” (John 6:51, 1 Pet. 3:19) But the human nature of this preacher Jesus did not descend from heaven, and was not in the times of Noah.

Obj. 2. Christ, man, is called God in the New Testament. Therefore, those who affirm that there is an invisible nature in this man, corrupt the Scripture; because, when I affirm that thou art a scholar, I do not mean that a scholar is in thee.

Ans. 1. Christ is called by the Apostle the Son of God, according to the Spirit. The Scriptures declare this man to be God, and that” in him dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead bodily.” Christ says of himself, “Destroy this body.” And the author of the epistle to the Hebrews makes mention of the tabernacle of the human nature, and calls his flesh a veil, viz., of his Divinity: “He suffered in the flesh.” “The Word was made flesh, and came unto his own.” (1 Pet. 4:1, John 1:14, 11) Therefore, there must needs be another nature in the flesh.

2. The Scriptures expressly attribute opposite properties to Christ, which cannot be found in anyone at the same time. They also attribute to him a finite and an infinite nature. “Before Abraham was, I am.” (John 8:58) Therefore, there is a necessity that this should be understood of different natures by the communication of properties, for Christ is never described as being such a God as is made, or as is efficacious in the hearts, of men on account of his excellent gifts. 2. To the second division of arguments, are to be referred those declarations of Scripture in which Christ is called the proper Son of God, because he is not adopted, but begotten from the substance of the Father. “Who spared not his own Son.” (Rom. 8:38.) The Jews exclaimed against Christ in the presence of Pilate,"that he made himself the Son of God,” viz., the proper and natural Son; otherwise, they themselves would have been guilty of the blasphemy of which they accused Christ, since they acknowledged themselves the sons of God. And this is explained more clearly in another place, where the Jews are said to have desired to kill Christ, because he said “that God was his Father, making himself equal with God;” that is, his proper and peculiar Father, which is inferred from. this, that he claimed for himself that power of working which is peculiar to God. (John 5:18.) Therefore, we conclude from the words of the Jews, that Christ called himself the proper and natural Son of God, having the right of a Son by nature, which others obtain by grace through him: because, if Christ had only called himself the Son of God, either by adoption or by grace, the Jews could not have charged him with blasphemy; for so they would have passed sentence upon themselves as blasphemers, since they boasted that they were also the children of God. And further, if this had been a calumny on the part of the Jews, Christ would certainly have refuted it, or at least repelled it as far as he himself was concerned but instead of this, he admitted what they said, and showed by solid reasons that he was truly what he professed to be. Christ is, therefore, the proper Son of God, and there is necessarily another nature in him besides that which he assumed, according to which he is the proper Son of God.

Objections of Servetus: 1. Christ is called the proper Son of God because he was made by God, just as the church is called the peculiar people of God.
Ans. This is a corruption; for the Apostle, in the passage before cited, opposes the proper Son of God to us and to Angels, who are not the proper sons of God; for the Angels are the sons of God by the grace of creation, and we by that of adoption. But Christ alone is the proper and natural Son of God, because he was begotten from the substance of the Father.

Obj. 2. But it is no where said in the Scriptures that Christ is the natural Son of God. Therefore it is nothing more than an invention of men.

Ans. It is true, indeed, that it is no where said in the Bible that Christ is the natural Son of God, but there are expressions used of a similar and equivalent signification, such as, "God's own Son,” "the only begotten Son,” &c. And then the same conclusion is necessarily arrived at as we have already shown, by the argument of the Apostle to the Romans, and that of the Jews in John.

Obj. 3. The Word was indeed always in God, but not the Son. Christ was called the Son in respect to his future filiation or Sonship in the flesh which he assumed. Therefore he is not the natural Son of God.

Ans. 1. Nay, he was not thus called the Son of God, for his humanity did not proceed from the substance of the Father. 2. The Word is called such a Son as he to whom the Father gave to have life in himself. 3. There would not, according to the above objection, have been a personal distinction between the Father and the Son, because the Word according to Servetus was no hypostasis or person. Therefore the Father would have been without the Son, or would have been the same with the Son as Sabellius erroneously taught.

3. This class of arguments comprises those declarations of Scripture in which Christ is called the only begotten Son of God. 4. We beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father.” “God so loved the world that he gave his only begotten Son,” &c. (John 1:14; 3:16.) Now Christ is called the only begotten Son because he has no brethren. But according to his human nature he has brethren, as it is said, “that it behooved him in all things to be made like unto his brethren.” “For which cause he is not ashamed to call them brethren.” (Heb. 2:17, 11.) There fore there is in Christ another nature, according to which he is the only begotten Son of the Father, and in relation to which he has no brethren.

Obj. Christ is called the only begotten, because the man Jesus is the only one born of the Virgin by the Holy Ghost.

Ans. This is a false interpretation of the language of Scripture, for 1. He alone is the only begotten who is from the substance of the Father. 2. Because the generation of the Word from the Father, and that of Christ from the Virgin, are often distinguished in the Scriptures, as it is said of Wisdom in Prov. 3:25, "Before the mountains were settled, before the hills, was I brought forth,” (or as it is otherwise rendered) begotten. “We beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father.” And in Matthew we read that Jesus, who is called Christ, was born of the Virgin Mary. 3 The only begotten is opposed to Angels and men, because Christ is the Son, not by the grace of adoption as is true of men, nor by that of creation as is true of Angels, but by nature. Here, however, it is objected on the part of some, that when it is said, “We beheld his glory it means the glory of the man Jesus; but this is an incorrect reference, because there is no antecedent to which we can properly refer the person spoken of, but the Word. The words which precede, are to be carefully noticed: “The Word was made flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory,” that is, the glory of the Word. If, therefore, the Word is called, and is the only begotten, then certainly, only begotten, in this passage, does not signify generation from Mary, but from the Father from everlasting. 4. To this division belong all those testimonies of Scripture in which the title Son of God is ascribed to Christ as to his divine nature, even before he was made flesh; as, “Who hath established all the ends of the earth? What is his name? and what is his Son s name?” “God hath spoken unto us by his Son, by whom also he made the world.” “God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world.” (Prov. 80:4, Heb. 1:2, John 3:17) The Father sent his Son into the world. But human nature is born into the world. Therefore the Son was before he was sent into the world.

To this class of arguments we must also refer all those portions of Scripture which attribute divine works to the Son before his assumption of humanity, as, “by him were all things created that are in heaven and that are in earth.” “My Father worketh hitherto and I work.” “What things soever the Father doeth, these also doeth the Son likewise.” (Col. 1:16, John 5:17, 19) But the humanity of Christ does not accomplish whatever the Father does, nor does it effect anything in the same manner in which the Father does, even now since it has been assumed, much less from the beginning. Therefore, according to this, the Son did all things from the beginning according to his divine nature, which is something different from the flesh which he assumed. “No man knoweth the Son but the Father, neither knoweth any man the Father save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal him.” If the Son now revealed God the Father to those who lived before he assumed our nature, he must have existed previously.

Those testimonies, moreover, which expressly attribute to Christ the name of God according to his divine nature, are here in place. These are to be diligently collected; because the enemies of the Divinity of Christ strongly insist that the name of God is only attributed to him in respect to his human nature. “The Word was God.” “God was manifested in the flesh.” “For this purpose the Son of God was manifested that he might destroy the works of the devil.” Therefore, there is in Christ a nature which was called the Son of God even before he was made flesh. Hence heretics cannot say that Christ is only now called the Son of God, since his miraculous conception by the Holy Ghost.

5. Under this class of arguments we shall comprise those passages of Scripture which speak of the Word. The Word, concerning which John speaks, was a person apart from and before the assumption of humanity. The Son is the Word. Therefore the Son is a person apart from and before the flesh assumed. All the different parts of the description of the Word in the first chapter of the gospel of John, combine to establish the truth of the major of the above syllogism. Thus it is said that he was in the beginning of the world and was truly God, that through him all creatures were made, that he was the author of all life and light in men, that he was in the world from the beginning, even when he was not known, and acknowledged, &c. Now all these things, which are proper only of some one that is subsistent, living, intelligent and operating, being ascribed to the Word most clearly prove that he was a person, and that before the man Jesus was born of the Virgin. The minor is proven from John 1:14: "We beheld his glory,” (viz. that of the incarnate Word) "the glory as of the only begotten of the Father.” Likewise, he who is called the Word is, in the same chapter, called the only begotten Son existing in the bosom of the Father, And again, John says that it was through the Word, and Paul says that it was through the Son that God created all things. Therefore, he who is called the Word and the Son of God, is a person which has existed before Jesus was born, and now dwells personally in the human nature which he assumed.

6. Under this head we shall consider those declarations of holy writ which testify of Christ that he is the Wisdom of God. The argument is this: The wisdom of God, through which all things were made, is eternal. The Son is that Wisdom. Therefore the Son is eternal, and by consequence existed before the assumption of humanity. The major is proven from what is said of Wisdom in Prov. 8:22: “The Lord possessed me in the beginning of his ways, before his works of old. When there were no depths I was brought forth.” The minor is thus proven: 1. Wisdom, in the passage just cited, is said to have been begotten. But to be begotten, when this is spoken of an intelligent nature, is nothing else than to be a Son. 2. Christ calls himself the wisdom of God. “Therefore also said the Wisdom of God, I will send them prophets,” &c. (Luke 11:49) 3. Paul also calls Christ the wisdom of God. “We preach Christ, the power of God and the wisdom of God. (1 Cor. 1:24) 4. The same things are ascribed by Solomon to wisdom which the Scriptures in other places attribute with peculiar efficacy to the Son, and which are more largely treated of in the book of Wisdom. Therefore Wisdom is the Son of God.

7. To this class belong those testimonies of Scripture concerning the office of the Mediator, which is to collect and to preserve the whole church by his merit and efficacy. That the church might be fully redeemed it was necessary that there should be a Mediator, on account of whom and through whom it might be gathered and defended. This Mediator is neither the Father nor the Holy Ghost. Therefore Christ is the Mediator of the whole church existing already from the beginning of the world. The church of old was received into favor on account of Christ who was to come; but this could not have been had he not existed; for no merit or efficacy can be from one who is not. Wherefore it is clearly evident that Christ had an existence before his incarnation; for it is not possible that there could have been friendship between God and men without a Mediator already existing. And hence, as there was a state of reconciliation between God and the faithful under the Old Testament, there must have been some Mediator of the church. The Scriptures now teach that there is only one Mediator between God and man, Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, today, and forever. Therefore Christ must have existed before his appearance in the flesh. The same thing may be inferred from the office of the Mediator, which is not only to appease the Father by intercession and sacrifice, but also to confer upon the faithful all those good things which he has obtained by his power and efficacy, to make known the will of God to men, to institute a ministry, to collect and preserve the church, and that wholly. "No man knoweth the Father but the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal him.” Therefore, neither Adam nor any of the faithful of old knew God, except through the Son, consequently the Son must then have existed.

Those testimonies of Scripture which speak of the efficacy of Christ, are to be referred to this division as well as those which speak of his merit. Thus it is said: “He hath put all things under his feet, and gave him to be head over all things to the church.” “And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone.” (Ep. 1:22; 2:20.) Christ is, therefore, the foundation, the head, the upholder, arid governor of the church, and hence existed before the church was. "I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life.” “No man cometh to the Father but by me.” “I give unto them eternal life.” “In him was life, and the life was the light of men.” “He was that true light, which lighteneth every man that cometh into the world.” “For through him we both have access by one Spirit unto the Father.” “He gave some apostles, some prophets, and some pastors and teachers.” (John 14:6, 10:28, 1:4,9, Ep. 2:18, 4:11) The apostle Peter says that the Spirit of Christ was in the prophets, foretelling the sufferings that should come unto Christ. Therefore, Christ revealed the will of God, instituted the ministry, established and governs the church; and in as much as he has done all this from the very beginning of the church, it is not to be doubted but that he has always existed. “And this is the Father’s will which hath sent me, that of all which he hath given me, I should lose nothing.” (John 6:39.) Therefore he preserves the church, and so has always been, because the church has always been preserved.

There is a remarkable testimony in the prophecy of Malachi 3:1 "Behold, I will send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me; and the Lord, whom ye seek shall suddenly come to his temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in.” This is spoken by Christ himself, through the prophet, and is confirmed by this argument: He for whom a way is prepared, is Christ. And he who promises, is the one for whom the way is prepared. Therefore, he who promises is Christ. The major is plain; for not the Father, but Christ was expected, and it was he that came after John the Baptist. The minor is proven from the text. “Behold, I will send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me.” Therefore Christ was, before he assumed our nature, because he sent his messenger, John, and was very God before he was manifested in the flesh; for he calls it his temple, to which he says he was about to come. No one but God has a temple built for his worship. Therefore, it is blasphemy to say that Christ did not exist before he assumed flesh. Nor is it to be objected because he speaks in the third person: saying the Lord will come to his temple: for he clearly shows that it is the Son who is meant by that Lord; I, the Lord, who sent John before me, and who also am the messenger of the covenant. Hence, it is possible that the prophet changes the person speaking, and represents the Father speaking in regard to sending his Son.

8. This class of arguments contains the testimonies in relation to the angel who appeared to the fathers under the Old Testament, as the messenger of God. “The angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads,” &c. (Gen. 48:16.) This angel of the Lord, of whose appearance we have many instances recorded in the Old Testament, the church has always confessed to have been the Son of God, and that for three reasons: 1. Because the whole Scriptures teach that the Son of God is the messenger of the Father to the church, and that he performs the office of Mediator. “The Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to his temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in.” “Unto the Son he saith, thy throne, O God, is forever and ever,” &c. “Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, today, and forever.” (Mal. 8:1, Heb. 1:8, 13:8) 2. Because, what is said by Moses concerning this angel, is said concerning Christ by Paul, that he was tempted in the desert by the Israelites. From these, and similar things, we may present the argument thus: The angel, or messenger of the Father was before the incarnation. That angel was neither the Father, nor the Holy Ghost, but the Son, because the Son alone is the messenger of the Father, and the mediator. Therefore, the Son was a person subsisting before he took upon him our nature.

9. In this last division are comprehended all those places in the Scripture in which Christ is expressly called the true God, by name and properties. “Of whom, as concerning the flesh, Christ came, who is over all God blessed for ever.” “This is the true God, and eternal life.” (Rom. 9:5, 1 John 5:20) Here the man Jesus Christ is expressly called the true God. If, therefore, he is the true God, he has always existed; for the one true God is from everlasting. “God was manifested in the flesh.” Here Christ is, without doubt, called God.

To this class of arguments also properly belong all those testimonies which attribute to Christ the work of creation, miracles, redemption, regeneration, protection, glorification, and also the government of the whole world, for which infinite wisdom, power, knowledge, and omnipresence are necessary, of which we have already at different times furnished quite a number of proofs. From these it is evident that not only the name, but also the properties of the true God, are attributed to the man Christ, the latter of which furnish the strongest proofs of his proper Divinity; for, whilst the titles of the true God which are attributed to Christ, may, after a certain manner, be expounded metaphorically, the divine properties cannot be so wrested as to lose their proper weight. And if we fortify ourselves with arguments of this kind, our adversaries cannot stand, but will be compelled, willing or unwilling, to confess that Christ had an existence before his incarnation.

This proposition being established, that the Son subsisted before his manifestation in the flesh, we must further enquire, what was he? the Creator, or a creature. Was he a Spirit co-eternal with God, or created in time? An answer to these questions is returned in the description of the Word, and of wisdom which is found in the first chapter of the gospel of John, and in the eighth chapter of the Proverbs of Solomon.