Arguments drawn from the nature and attributes of God.

1. There is a God. Therefore there is a providence. This is as truly said as to say, no God, no providence: for to suppose a God who does not rule the world, is to deny God. Yea, to suppose God to exist and not to govern the world, is in direct opposition to his nature; for the world can no more exist without God than it could be created without him.

2. God is so powerful that it is not possible that anything can be done which he does not simply wish—neither can it be done in a manner different from what he desires—but whatever is done must necessarily be done according to his will and direction. Therefore those things which are daily done, are accomplished according to the will of Almighty God, and so by his providence.

3. It belongs to a wise governor not to permit anything to be done in his kingdom without his will and certain counsel. God is most wise and can be present with all things. Therefore nothing is done in the world without his providence.

4. God is most just, and at the same time the judge of the world. Therefore, he himself bestows rewards upon the good, and inflicts punishment upon the wicked.

5. God is most good; but he who is most good is also most communicable. Therefore, as God created the world from his infinite goodness, that he might communicate himself to it, so in like manner he preserves, administers and governs the world which he created by the same goodness.

6. The ends of all things are good, and ordained of God. Therefore the means also, which are necessary for the attainment of these ends, are appointed by God from everlasting, either absolutely or according to some thing else.

7. God is the first cause of all things. Therefore all second causes are dependent upon him.

8. An unchangeable foreknowledge depends on an immutable cause. God foreknows all things unchangeably from everlasting. Therefore he foreknows from an immutable cause, which is his eternal counsel and decree. The sum of all is this: God is almighty, most wise, just and good, therefore he ordained and created nothing without some special end and purpose; neither does he cease to guide and direct his works to the ends for which he hath ordained them; nor does he suffer those things to be accomplished by chance, which he made and ordained for the manifestation of his own glory. “ These things hast thou done, and I kept silence ; thou thoughtest that I was altogether such a one as thyself,” &c. “ Hath God forgotten to be gracious?” “My counsel shall stand, and I will do all my pleasure" Isaiah 4610