The arguments by which we demonstrate that the providence of God embraces all and every single thing, are very nearly the same as those by which we prove that there is a providence.

1. Nothing can be done without the will of him who is all-powerful. Therefore it is impossible that anything can be done when God does not simply will it, seeing he is all-powerful. But whatever is done must be done either by God simply willing it, or it must be according to his will.

2. It belongs to a wise governor not to permit any thing, which he has in his power, to be done without his will and counsel—and the wiser he is, the more extensive will his government be. But the wisdom of God is infinite, and all things are in his power, according to Is. 40:27. Therefore nothing is done in the whole world which God does not will and decree.

3. All things have certain ends, which are truly good. But all good things are from God, who wills and directs them. Therefore he wills and directs the ends of things. But he who wills the ends, wills also the means for the attainment of these ends. Hence God wills the means, and these simply if they are good, or in a certain manner or respect if they are evil. Seeing therefore that all things which are and are done, are either ends or means for the attainment of these ends, it follows that God, must will and govern all things.

4. There is some first cause which does not depend on anything else—but which is the ground of all other things. God is this first cause. Therefore all second causes depend upon the will of God.

5. God fore-knew all things unchangeably from everlasting, because he can neither be deceived nor err in his foreknowledge. Therefore the fore knowledge of God is a certain and infallible knowledge of all things, so that all things come to pass just as God fore-knew they would, and that because he fore-knew them ; for his fore-knowledge does not depend upon things created, but upon himself. Hence all events depend upon, and proceed immutably from the fore-knowledge of God.

6. All good things are from God as the first cause. All things made and established in nature, as substance, desires, actions, &c., as far as they are merely such, are good. Therefore they are from God, and are accomplished by his providence.